A recent empirical paper by CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, a research institute under the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs, explains the effects of BITs (Bilateral Investment Treaties) on bilateral foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks for various regions and country income groups.
The sample in this paper is formed by 217 countries from 1985 to 2011, making it the largest and most recent period utilized in nearly all studies covering the effect of BITs on FDI. Other papers have often used a shorter period of time or a smaller sample. Reference can be made to a paper by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development which reviews different studies on this issue. Our previous post has discussed this paper.
Below are some findings of the CPB paper:
- If countries have ratified a BIT then they invest on average 35% more in terms of stocks than country pairs without a ratified BIT.
- The effect differs between countries classified by income group (based on World Bank’s classification). Upper middle income countries seem to benefit the most from BITs. The impact on FDI stocks is about twice the average effect. Examples of upper middle income countries are Romania, Greece and Hungary.
- Region-wise, FDI impact is much larger if the host country is located in East Asia or Middle and Eastern Europe.
- The number of BITs among developed countries is about 500.